## ukfan

Run one update of a basic unscented (sigma point) Kalman filter where the process and measurement noise are additive. This runs faster than a traditional UKF and, because the propagation and observation functions do not require inputs for the process and measurement noise, is a drop-in replacement for an extended Kalman filter.

[x_k, P_k] = ukfan( ...
t_km1, t_k, x_km1, P_km1, u_km1, z_k, ...
f, h, Q_km1, R_k, ...
alpha, beta, kappa, ...
(etc.))

## Inputs

t_km1 Time at sample k-1 Time step from sample k-1 to k State estimate at sample k-1 Estimate covariance at sample k-1 Input vector at sample k-1 Measurement at sample k Propagation function with interface: x_k = f(t_km1, t_k, x_km1, u_km1, q_km1) where q_km1 is the process noise at sample k-1 Measurement function with interface: z_k = h(t_k, x_k, u_km1, r_k) where r_k is the measurement noise at sample k Pocess noise covariance at sample k-1 Measurement noise covariance at sample k Optional turning parameter, often 0.001 Optional tuning parameter, with 2 being optimal for Gaussian estimation error Optional tuning parameter, often 3 - nx, where nx is the dimension of the state Additional arguments to be passed to f and h after their normal arguments

## Outputs

x Upated estimate at sample k Updated estimate covariance at sample k

## Example

We can quickly create a simulation for discrete, dynamic system, generate noisy measurements of the system over time, and pass these to an unscented Kalman filter.

First, define the discrete system.

rng(1);
dt    = 0.1;                                  % Time step
F_km1 = expm([0 1; -1 0]*dt);                 % State transition matrix
G_km1 = [0.5*dt^2; dt];                       % Process-noise-to-state map
Q_km1 = G_km1 * 0.5^2 * G_km1.';              % Process noise variance
R_k   = 0.1;                                  % Meas. noise covariance

Make propagation and observation functions. These are just linear for this example, but ukf is meant for nonlinear functions.

f = @(t_km1, t_k, x_km1, u_km1) F_km1 * x_km1;
h = @(t_k, x_k, u_k) x_k(1);

Now, we'll define the simulation's time step and initial conditions. Note that we define the initial estimate and set the truth as a small error from the estimate (using the covariance).

n       = 100;                     % Number of samples to simulate
x_hat_0 = [1; 0];                  % Initial estimate
P       = diag([0.5 1].^2);        % Initial estimate covariance
x_0     = x_hat_0 + mnddraw(P, 1); % Initial true state

Now we'll just write a loop for the discrete simulation.

% Storage for time histories
x     = [x_0, zeros(2, n-1)];                         % True state
x_hat = [x_hat_0, zeros(2, n-1)];                     % Estimate
z     = [x_0(1) + mnddraw(R_k, 1), zeros(1, n-1)];    % Measurement

% Simulate each sample over time.
for k = 2:n

% Propagate the true state.
x(:, k) = F_km1 * x(:, k-1) + mnddraw(Q_km1, 1);

% Create the real measurement at sample k.
z(:, k) = x(1, k) + mnddraw(R_k, 1);

% Run the Kalman correction.
[x_hat(:,k), P] = ukfan((k-1)*dt, dt, x_hat(:,k-1), P, [], z(:,k), ...
f, h, Q_km1, R_k);

end

Plot the results.

figure(1);
clf();
t = 0:dt:(n-1)*dt;
plot(t, x, ...
t, z, '.', ...
t, x_hat, '--');
legend('True x1', 'True x2', 'Meas.', 'Est. x1', 'Est. x2');
xlabel('Time');

Note how similar this example is to the example of ukf.

## Reference

Wan, Eric A. and Rudoph van der Merwe. "The Unscented Kalman Filter." Kalman Filtering and Neural Networks. Ed. Simon Haykin. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001. Print. Pages 221-276.